TCP Connection Management

How is TCP Connection Established TCP connection is of three phases Setup Established Closed Before diving deep into the TCP connection management, we need to understand about active open and passive open.   Active Open A connection establishment is termed as active open if the initial TCP packet knows the following, Source IP / Destination … Continue reading TCP Connection Management

Network Addressing – Part 1 – MAC Address

Not very long into a network career you would realize there are various addresses at various layers of the OSI model, this Network address series will be diving in detail into the addresses used at various layers of the OSI model. We will discuss the various address details used at different OSI layers in the … Continue reading Network Addressing – Part 1 – MAC Address


Ethernet is a connecting medium and due to its affordability and interoperability, Ethernet has grown to be the medium of choice in modern day network. The other types of connectivity medium include Fiber Optics, Twinax cables etc., Ethernet cables are classified into different categories based on the speed and distance. IEEE 802.3 defines the specification … Continue reading Ethernet

Frame Relay : The state of art technology in 90’s

Frame relay switching is a Service provider technology to establish communication between two or more sites. Frame-relay is an old technology but is the base building block for technology like MPLS  which by the way is the best connectivity method between sites as of date. Lets see how this bad boy works. Frame-relay is a … Continue reading Frame Relay : The state of art technology in 90’s


MSTP...MSTP aka Multiple Spanning-Tree Protocol is an industry standard variant of Spanning-Tree. This by design incorporates the features of RSTP and is very fast. MSTP groups Vlan into particular instance and forwards the frames and builds the loop free topology. The Election process and the other STP parameters are same as previous versions of STP.Why … Continue reading STP : MSTP